Background
Program for Enhancement of Emergency Response (PEER) is a regional training program initiated in 1998 by the U.S. Agency for International Development’s, Office of U.S. Foreign Disaster Assistance (USAID/OFDA) to strengthen disaster response capacities in Asia.

In 1998-2003, under Stage 1, countries involved were India, Indonesia, Nepal and Philippines. In Stage 2 which started in 2003, Bangladesh was added. In Year Five of the Stage 2, Pakistan was also added. These countries were selected to participate in the program based on their high seismic vulnerability, their need to improve their disaster response capacity, and the interest on the part of their national governments to participate in the program.
PEER's success in the Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) region is brought and expanded to vulnerable Asia Countries, through the following progression of the program. 

PEER STAGE 1 (1998-2003)
This is the introductory phase, bringing the experience from LAC to Asia at the regional level. Stage 1 targeted four countries, namely, India, Indonesia, Nepal and the Philippines. In this stage, partnerships with key stakeholders from the beneficiary countries were established; the training curriculum utilized in LAC was adapted to Asian context; and development of initial core of instructors for the Medical Fist Responder (MFR) and Collapsed Structure Search and Rescue (CSSR) courses was started in these countries, in coordination with national partnering agencies.Hospital Preparedness for Emergencies (HOPE) course was developed and piloted in Stage I. PEER Stage I was implemented by the Asian Disaster Preparedness Center (ADPC), Bangkok.

PEER Stage 2 (2003-2009)
The National Society for Earthquake Technology – Nepal (NSET) managed the Stage 2 of PEER in the four initial countries, with the addition of Bangladesh in 2003 and after the 2005 Kashmir Earthquake, Pakistan was added in 2007. The focus of this stage was on the institutionalization of PEER core courses (MFR, CSSR and HOPE). The HOPE Course was finalized, tested, implemented and institutionalized in the six countries. Responding to the need to develop HOPE instructors, NSET reoriented the TFI course into HOPE-TFI and conducted instructors’ development training program. In the final year of Stage 2, HOPE Course was reviewed and reoriented to address multi-hazard situations, giving it a facelift from its earlier focus on seismic risks. The new HOPE curriculum was finalized, piloted and implemented in the later stage of Stage 2. Refresher courses on MFR and CSSR were also developed and piloted.
NSET assisted the partner countries in adapting the MFR and CSSR curricula, and continued developing national cadre of PEER instructors, to include course coordinators and course monitors. NSET collaborated with three U.S. partners, namely, International Resources Group (IRG), Johns Hopkins University/Center for International Emergencies, Disasters and Refugee Studies (CIEDRS), and Safety Solutions, Inc., for the implementation of PEER Stage2.
PEER Stage 3 (2009-2014)
PEER Stage 3 carries on with the efforts and successes of Stages 1 and 2, and, that is, furthering the institutionalization of MFR and CSSR courses in the 6 project countries; and continuation of HOPE course in the same countries, expanding to additional three Asian countries, namely, Cambodia, Lao PDR and Vietnam. A new concept is added to the PEER’s program scope – the Community Action for Disaster Response (CADRE), further bringing down the training of emergency response to the local level.

PEER Stage 3 Objective 1 & 2 which is CARDE and HOPE is being implemented by Asian Disaster Preparedness Center (ADPC):
Country Coverage for HOPE & CADRE : Bangladesh, Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines and Vietnam.

PEER Stage 3 Objective 3 which is MFR and CSSR is being implemented by National Society for Earthquake Technology-Nepal (NSET):
Country Coverage for MFR & CSSR : Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Nepal, Pakistan and Philippines.

Program Goal:
To reduce mortality in mass casualty events and increase the survival rates of disaster victims.
NSET Program Objectives for PEER Stage 3 OBJECTIVE : Medical First Responder (MFR) and Collapsed Structure Search and Rescue (CSSR) Courses Strengthen the capabilities of PEER countries to provide collapsed structure search and rescue and basic and advanced life support during emergencies by further strengthening and institutionalizing the Medical First Responder (MFR) and Collapsed Structure Search and Rescue (CSSR) courses.
Country coverage: Bangladesh, India,Indonesia, Nepal, Pakistan and Philippines.